The Urgency of Now! : Building a True Nigerian Nation

Muhammadu Buhari
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Five people died including the bomber. Several minutes later, three female bombers exploded their bombs close to the initial site but they didn't kill anyone else because they acted too quickly". On 28 November, two suicide bombers killed six near the military base in Dabanga, and in an attack in Gouzoudou five people were killed, according to a military spokesman.

On 2 December, Cameroon's Defense Minister claimed that, at the end of November, Boko Haram members had been killed and hostages freed, and that a large stockpile of arms and munitions, and black-and-white ISIL flags had been seized. The [Chibok] schoolgirls who are missing are not amongst the group". On 6 October , the Chadian army reported an attack in the border region of Lake Chad.

Eleven militants and two soldiers were killed at Kaika, and in an attempted suicide bombing at Bougouma, "Two members of Boko Haram were neutralised and a third blew himself up, wounding 11 civilians", according to a government statement. On 5 December , three female suicide bombers killed about 30 at a crowded market on the island of Koulfoua in Lake Chad. On 25 September , at least 15 civilians were massacred and stores were looted in a cross-border raid on a Niger village, according to anonymous military sources.

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The militants also looted stores, according to Niger army officers. On 4 October, according to an aid worker, a policeman and five civilians were killed by 4 suicide bombers near the Nigerian border. On 6 October, three suspected Boko Haram militants accidentally blew themselves up while transporting explosives to Bosso town in Diffa.

On 21 October near Diffa town two soldiers were killed by explosives while intercepting an attack. Diffa region hosts over , Nigerian refugees. It is under a state of emergency. On 14 October a curfew and movement restrictions were imposed. More than 1, Boko Haram suspects were arrested in Niger during On 11 November , two Niger military officials described an attack on a village in Bosso district in which five civilians and 20 militants were killed.

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A senior government official later denied that the attack had occurred, according to Reuters. A government spokesman, Justice Minister Marou Amadou stated: "Eighteen villagers were killed, including the chief imam for the village whose throat was slit by his own nephew". He also said situation in the regions bordering Mali has led to the displacement of some 1, persons.

On 30 January , at least 86 people were killed and at least 62 more injured in an attack by Boko Haram militants on Dalori Village which is located 4 kilometers from Maiduguri , Nigeria. Johns Hopkins University figures indicated that Boko Haram killed people in the second quarter of — the lowest quarterly figure for five years. The group has since split into pro-Barnawi and pro-Shekau factions, with reports of armed clashes breaking out between them. On 23 August , the Nigerian Army announced it conducted an overnight air-operation that was 'very successful' in killing the leadership of Boko Haram.

Among those presumed killed was Abubakar Shekau , he died in an aerial bombardment in Taye village. The Nigerian Army claims that the disputed Boko Haram leader died from injuries to his shoulders while he was performing prayer. On 28 August, the Nigerian president Muhammadu Buhari , retracted the military's statement and claimed that the Boko Haram leader was 'wounded' but not killed in the air-strike.

He further stated that the military expected recapturing the final strongholds of the group within weeks. UNICEF reported an increase in child suicide bombers with 27 incidents occurring in the first three months of in Nigeria, Niger, Cameroon and Chad, compared to 30 in the entire previous year, 56 in and 4 in Kidnapped children who escape from Boko Haram are often held in custody or ostracized by their community or family.

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Patrick Rose, a UNICEF regional coordinator, stated: "They are held in military barracks, separated from their parents, without medical follow-up, without psychological support, without education, under conditions and for durations that are unknown". According to the NGO: "Society's rejection of these children, and their sense of isolation and desperation, could be making them more vulnerable to promises of martyrdom through acceptance of dangerous and deadly missions".

These were often deployed with suicide bombers; an increasing number of whom were women and girls recruited to attack markets, transportation depots, mosques, and IDP camps. Boko Haram reportedly released all but one of the girls by 21 March. On 2 April, a Boko Haram attack on the outskirts of Maiduguri resulted in the death of 18 people and another 84 wounded. This attack came just days after the government of Nigeria claimed there was a ceasefire with Boko Haram. The attack happened in the villages of Bale Shuwa and Bale Kura, close to both Maiduguri and the city's military camp.

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The Nigerian troops killed 11 of the insurgents during a battle in Gamoran Village, while the remaining insurgents were killed trying to escape from the Army's efforts in Northern Borno. The Nigerian troops rescued 4 men, 33 women, and 16 children from the insurgent's hideouts in the area. In December, Boko Haram launched a series of attacks in north-east Nigeria. The attacks took place two months prior to the presidential elections in Nigeria. In January, 6 Nigerian soldiers were killed and 14 injured by the Boko Haram jihadists during a raid at a village near the army chief's family home.

Four military vehicles were also seized by the jihadists and two were completely destroyed. On 22 March, Boko Haram militants killed at least 23 Chadian soldiers overnight, two Chadian security sources said on that day, in what appeared to be the deadliest ever such attack inside Chad by the Islamist militants. The raid occurred in the town of Dangdala , near the banks of Lake Chad.

One of security sources added that the assailants were believed to have crossed the border from neighboring Niger. On August 15, 3 Nigerian soldiers were killed during a gun battle with Islamist militants in a village on the outskirts of Borno State capital Maiduguri. Boko Haram was founded by Mohammed Yusuf who led the group from until his death in After his death, his deputy Abubakar Shekau took control of the group and has led it until the present day.

Although Boko Haram is organized in a hierarchical structure with one overall leader, the group also operates as a clandestine cell system using a network structure, [] with units having between and fighters each. Boko Haram is said to have raised substantial sums from kidnap for ransom.

As well as extortion from local residents, Boko Haram has claimed to extort money from local state governments. It has long been alleged that Boko Haram had a relationship with al-Qaeda. In , letters from Boko Haram were reportedly found in bin Laden's compound. Therefore they help us in our struggle and we help them, too.

According to the UN Security Council listing of Boko Haram under the al-Qaeda sanctions regime in May , [] the group "has maintained a relationship with AQIM for training and material support purposes", and "gained valuable knowledge on the construction of improvised explosive devices from AQIM". The UN found that a "number of Boko Haram members fought alongside al Qaeda affiliated groups in Mali in and before returning to Nigeria with terrorist expertise". Despite historic ties, al-Qaeda central has never officially accepted Boko Haram as an affiliate.

The issues between AQ and Boko Haram related to the extremism of Abubakar Shekau with respect to him declaring the entire general population of Muslims in Nigeria to be non-Muslims. Shekau argues that due to the widespread apostasy of Muslims through voting in elections that it is legitimate to kill Muslim civilians. Al-Qaeda takes the view that the general population should be viewed as Muslim and thus killing civilians is not acceptable.

The reason behind this was that Shekau had disobeyed Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi 's order to cease targeting Muslim civilians. Shekau rejected the move, leading to a split between the groups. It's fallen apart". They are short of basic equipment, including radios and armoured vehicles. Morale is said to be low. Senior officers are alleged to be skimming military procurement budget funds that are intended to pay for the standard issue equipment of soldiers. In the summer of , the Nigerian military shut down mobile phone coverage in the three north-eastern states to disrupt the group's communication and ability to detonate IEDs.

Accounts from military insiders and data of Boko Haram incidences before, during and after the mobile phone blackout suggest that the shut down was 'successful' from a military- tactical point of view. However it angered citizens in the region owing to negative social and economic consequences of the mobile shutdown and engendered negative opinions toward the state and new emergency policies. While citizens and organizations developed various coping and circumventing strategies, Boko Haram evolved from an open network model of insurgency to a closed centralized system, shifting the center of its operations to the Sambisa Forest.

This fundamentally changed the dynamics of the conflict. In July , Nigeria was estimated to have had the highest number of terrorist killings in the world over the past year, , killed in attacks. Boko Haram are better armed and are better motivated than our own troops. Given the present state of affairs, it is absolutely impossible for us to defeat Boko Haram.

In March , it was reported that Nigeria had employed hundreds of mercenaries from South Africa and the former Soviet Union to assist in making gains against Boko Haram before the 28 March election. In October , General David M. Rodriguez , head of U.

Africa Command, reported that Boko Haram has lost territory, directly contradicting statements made by Boko Haram. This announcement came days after an attack by Boko Haram that left 18 dead in northern Nigeria.

In , the U. State Department designated Boko Haram and its offshoot Ansaru as terrorist organizations in November , citing Boko Haram's links with AQIM and its responsibility for "thousands of deaths in northeast and central Nigeria over the last several years including targeted killings of civilians".

Efforts to cooperate in freeing the Chibok schoolgirls had faltered, largely due to mutual distrust; the infiltration of the military by Boko Haram meant that U. The Nigerian government denies having committed human rights abuses in the conflict, and therefore oppose U.

In November the U. State department again refused to supply Cobras, citing concerns over the Nigerian military's ability to maintain and use them without endangering civilians. On 1 December , the U. A spokesman for the U. After a series of meetings over many months, [8] [9] [10] Cameroon's foreign minister announced on 30 November that a coalition force to fight terrorism, including Boko Haram, would soon be operational.

France and the United Kingdom, in coordination with the United States, have sent trainers and material assistance to Nigeria to assist in the fight against Boko Haram. Israel and Canada also pledged support. The United Kingdom has also aided Nigeria through military support and counter-terrorism training. The British government has provided training to 28, Nigerian military troops to aid against Boko Haram. More than 40 British troops have also been sent long term to Nigeria. In May , China offered Nigeria assistance that included satellite data, and possibly military equipment. In October , Colombia sent a delegation of security experts to assist the Nigerian authorities and share expertise on security and counter terrorism.

In January , when thousands of refugees from north-east Nigeria were forced to return from Cameroon , despite the continuous threat to civilian lives by Boko Haram jihadists, the United Nations was "extremely alarmed". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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The black standard of ISIL. Further information: Fourth Nigerian Republic. Further information: Boko Haram insurgency.